# Split string containing math equations

I want to split the following string that contains equation:

sentence = "The integral of y^{n} is \frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1} when n \neq -1:"


The expected result is:

[y^{n}, \frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1}, n \neq -1:]


The problem is here. Mathjax automatically concatenates the sentences removing spaces.

I was able to remove the strings using the following methods.

phrase = 'The integral of '
sentence.gsub(/#{phrase}/, '')
# => "y^{n} is \frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1} when n \neq -1:"

is = 'is'
sentence.gsub(/#{is}/, '')
# => y^{n}  \frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1} when n \neq -1:"

when_word = 'when'
sentence.gsub(/#{when_word}/, '')
# => "y^{n}  \frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1}  n \neq -1:"


I tried with split, but did not get the expected result.

sentence.split(', ')
# => ["y^{n}  \frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1}  n \neq -1:"]


How can I get the desired result?

As per my understanding of your question, this is what you want.

str = "The integral of y^{n} is \frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1} when n \neq -1:"
str.split(/\bThe integral of\b | \bis\b | \bwhen\b/)[1..-1]

#=> ["y^{n}", "\frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1}",  " n \neq -1:"]


Since the backslashes are part of the formula, they will need to be escaped with additional backslashes. (If you are reading the string from a file, or other source, rather than specifying it in source code, this should not be necessary.) Here is a script that does that and then does the parsing. It is not as elegant as Anurag's solution, but it does the job.

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

s = "The integral of y^{n} is \\frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1} when n \\neq -1:"

s = s.split(/ of /).last
frag1, rest = s.split(/ is /)
frag2, frag3 = rest.split(/ when /)
puts %Q{Fragment 1: "#{frag1}"}
puts %Q{Fragment 2: "#{frag2}"}
puts %Q{Fragment 3: "#{frag3}"}

=begin
Outputs:

Fragment 1: "y^{n}"
Fragment 2: "\frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1}"
Fragment 3: "n \neq -1:"

=end


I think this is the most straightforward.

string.match(/\AThe integral of (.*) is (.*) when (.*)\z/m).captures
#=> ["y^{n}", "\frac{y^{n + 1}}{n + 1}", "n \neq -1:"]